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The discovery of cancer immune checkpoints and the successes of immune- and tumor -targeted antibodies have changed the landscape of the clinical management of various malignancies. The hallmarks of oncogenesis are now encompassing inflammation and immunosuppression. Teams from SOCRATE 2.0 have a long lasting commitment to immunology with key contributions to decipher new concepts (immunogenic cell death, resistance to immune modulation, tumor antigens, immunosurveillance, monoclonal antibodies therapy). Future challenges rely on understanding mechanisms to circumvent the primary and secondary resistances to immune attacks in order to exploit and foster the numerous clinically relevant next generation trials combining conventional-, tumor targeted- and immune-targeted -therapies.